പൂമുഖം

 

`mKw1

ApXb{-ns

AIw-s]m-cp

l Iw]yqdns ASnm\ LSI lmUvshb l

l ApXb{ns Poh\mUn tkm^vvshb l

l b{n\v b{`mj sajo emwtKzPv l

l Iw]yqdns _mlyklmbnI s]cns^dkv l

Iw]yq--dns Xdbpw ]dbpw

{]XnIcWsamIpw F BitbmsSbmWv cXojv ImnIsb kao]nXv. Ipsshn tPmen sNp tN kXojns `mcybmbn ImnI hon hnv Bdpamkntesdbmsbnepw AhcpsS apdnbn Ibdm\pff ss[cyw cXojv AXphsc ImWnnn. Ftm HcI¨. HXmw mn ]Tnp IpnbmWv Xms\nepw Ftm Hcp Nfpv. hS [cn ImnIbpsS apJv kqn pt\mm Hcp ss[cypdhv. ]s, apdnbn taipdncnp Iw]yq Znhtk\ hmXn¡ \nv ImWptm Pnmk ASm\mhpn.  ]Wn hnJymXamb Hcp Iw]yq I\nbn t{]m{KmadmWv ImnI. Ipsshn tPmenkmyXbpffXn\m Iw]yq t{]m{Kmasds tXSnnSnv sIpIbmbncpp tN Fv cXojn\dnbmw. honse Nnd tPmen Ignm, cm{Xn sshIpwhsc ImnI Iw]yqdn\v apnemWv. tN\pw tNnbpanSbn clkyamb hmmhn\naba{Xbpw \SpXv Cu b{w hgnbmsWv cXojn\dnbmambncpp. ]s, AsXs\bmsWh\dnbn. Pnmk \mtXmdpw GdnhcnIbmbncpp.  taipdv ssIapqn, ISbqcn ssIbn ]nSnv, kv{Io\n Ip\v, Nnma bmbncnpIbmWv ImnI. If sSenhnj t]mse tXmn tamWndn Fsmstbm IWpI. "sSenhnjs' ]pdIn \nv Ipsd hbdpI heXphincnp Hcp s]nbntepw ssSvssddns II \ncncnp shfp

http://bluemangoa2z.50webs.com/

 

smcp t_mUntepw \ofpp. heXphis s]nbpsS ap`mKv CSnsS anp Hcp ] ssev. Iw]yq C{Xbpw ASpp\nv ImWpXv ASp ImemWv. Ign \mepamkambn CXnhnsSbpsWvSnepw ASpphv t\mm\pff AhkcapWvSmbnn. ] ssev anp s]nbpsS apIfn Hcp \ncbn Ipsd ssepIfp Hcbntmfw L\ap Hcp sNdnb s]n. AXns ]pdIn \npap hb Ipdpsdbp sSent^mWn LSnnncnpp. cXojv ImnIbpsS ]pdInsv izmkaSnnSnp \np. cXojns kmnyadnnstmWw ImnI Xncnpt\mn. `wKnbpff B NpWvSpIfpsS h{Inp IWvS cXojn\v t]Snbmbn. AXn{Ianp IbdnbXnst]cn s]mnsdnptam? "FmSm DWvSm?' ImnI tNmZnp. kam[m\ambn. A iImc`mhn hnfnpXmWv "DWvSm' Fv. Xpdn Ipw sXdn _pnbpamsWv CSnsS ]dbpw. Fmbmepw ImnIbpsS kzcnse kvt\l`mhw cXojn\v ss[cyw \In. apJhpc IqSmsX Ah tNmZnp: "tNn, Cu kq{Xsas ]Tnnptam?' "Fv kq{Xw?' ImnIbpsS kzcn ApXhpw kwibhpw.

 

http://bluemangoa2z.50webs.com/

 

Iw]yqdn\v t\sc XmSnsImWvSv NqWvSn cXojv ]dp: "Cu kq{Xw!' "\n\v Iw]yq ]TnWsatm? \n\Xn\pff {]mbamtbm? HXmw mn ]TnpXtbpp \o?' "CXn\v {]mbsampw thWvS. Fs mnse kpa {]hnnpatm Iw]yq . ASp sImw RfpsS kvIqfnepw Iw]yq hcpw'. Xncntkcbn ImnI Ah\`napJambn Xncnncpp. CcpssIbpapbn Ahs tXmfn shp. XWp ]nsImWvSmWv B ssII DWvSmnbnpsXh\v tXmn. cXojns IpIfn t\mn ImnI ]dp: "\o kocnbmsWn \ns Rm ]Tnnmw. Fmbmepw Cv \Sn. F\nv Ipdtsd ]WnbpWvSv. \msf apX, cm{Xnbn Hp kabw. Fm, t]msc?' aXnsbv Xe Ipepn Ah apdnhnv t]mp. ]ntv, Xm Iw]yq ]Tnm t]mIp hnhcw Ah A`nam\]qw IqqImtcmSv ]dp. sshIptcw A \maP]n\mbn ]qPmapdnbn Ibdnbtm Ah ImnIbpsS apdnbnsen. taipdv Iw]yqdns "sSenhnj ' Hm^mbncpp. ImnI InS bn N{aw ]Snv apJw Ip\nncn pIbmWv. cXojv ASpp sNp. ImnI aSnbn Idpp \ndap Hcp sImp {_o^vtIkv XpdpshpsImWvSv AXn\Is tm sNpp. cXojv AhfpsS ]pdIn sNncpp. ApXw! AXv shdpw s]nb Hcp C{Pmesn. Xpdpshncnp s]nbn ssSvssddnteXv t]mse II. aqSnbpsS D`mKv Iw]yqdns "sSenhnj' t]msemcp kv{Io AXn Hcp]Sw. ImnI Ahs\ t\mn Nncntm Ah tNmZnp: "CsXm, tNo?' "CXpw Iw]yq Xs. aSnbn shv {]hnnmhpXv. bm{X sNpt msgms D]tbmKnm\pffXv. em]vtSmv Iw]yq Fv ]dbpw aSnbn shbvpXmbXn\m!' "Atm taipdv shbvpXn\v tS_ntSmv Iw]yq FmtWm ]dbpI?' "sUkvIvtSmv Fv ]dtm'. "ocntbm skpw hmvta\pw t]mse, At?'

bm{XmthfIfn aSnbnencpv tPmen sNp

em]vtSm]v Iw]yq

http://bluemangoa2z.50webs.com/

 

 

"\o anSp\mWtm!' ImnI NncnpsImsWvSgptp. b{w Hm^mn, "s]n' bSv, Sotmbnv apIfn shv taibvcnInsen. cXojv Ahsf Npnn \np. "Atm \apv XpSmw?' ImnI tNmZnp. BImsah Xebmn. taipdncnp hnhn[ b{kwhn[m\ġv apIfneqsS samn Hcphw ssIhoin ImnI ]dp: "CXmWv ]n.kn.' "]n.kntbm? AXv t]meokv tIm_nft?' t]meokpImc\mbncp As \ HmpsImWvSv cXojv ]dp. "t]meokv tIm_nfpa, ]ntImUpa, Cu ]n.kn. CXv t]gvkW Iw]yq. Fm t]gvkW Fv ]dm?' "hyn]cw'. "AsX. hyn]camb, AYhm, hynv thWvSnbp Iw]yq . apsms, Iw]yq hym]IamIpXn\p apv, Hm^okpIfpsS Hcp {]tXyI m\v m]nsSp Hcp "hv tj' Bbncp p Iw]yq. Cpw AXpWvSv. ]noSv Iw]yq, Htc Hm^oknse s hnhn[ DtZymKcpsS kzw D]tbmKn\mbn AhcpsS taipdfnsen. AYhm imkv{Xw Acnep Iw]yq hnIknnsSpp. Atacnbnse International Business Machines

BWv CXv hnIknnXv.' "AXt tNn IBM? tN BZys XhW Ipsshn \nv htm imen\ntnv Hcp IBM ssSvssd sImWvSphncp p.'

em]vtSm]v Iw]yq CcnpXv aSnbnemsWn Ioibn HXpnbncnp {]bXv\imenbmWv t]mv ]n.kn. C^taj\pw FsSbnsapw; B[p\nI PohnXn Iw]yq

http://bluemangoa2z.50webs.com/

 

 

"AXpXs. IBMs kmtXnI hnZysbn pSpWvSmnb t]gvkW Iw]yqdpIfpsS s]mXpt]cmWv IBM ]n.kn temInse 95% Iw]yqdpIfpw Cu t{iWnbnsSp XmWv. _mn Av iXam\w Bn I\nbpsS amIv (Apple Mac - Macintosh) Fp ]dbp antmjv Iw]yqdpw.' "tNn, Ncn{Xsams ]ns ]Tnmw. BZyw Fs CXv {]hnnm ]Tnnv?' s]sv tXmnb Hcp kzmX{yn cXojv ]dp. "sImmw. Ccpnv Im \onbm aXn, tItm. Csæn \SphnSnv hogpw. A \maP]w IgnsWop ImWpw. C\n DuWp IgnmImw.' DuWp IgnpXn\nSbn ImnI ]dp: "At, Rm IcpXnbXv Cu DWvS \mWw IpWpnbmsWm. Hpa . Ch Fs Ifnbmm XpSnbncnpp.' "B]ntct tamtf. Cs\bm. kXoi\nt, \ns `mhv... ]mw mkv IgnbpXphsc cm{Xnbn aq{XsamgnWsan ]pdtv Rm IqSns Wambncpp. {]oUn{Knbmbtmtgpw Hh cm{Xn cWvSmas kn\nabvv t]mIm XpSn. "Atm, At, adp. kXojns Cusabn Cse hXm. adp]Sn Ab n. Cv Xs AbbvWw. cmhnse Cs\v IWIvSv sNm Ignn.' Xncnv ImnIbpsS apdnbn. Xncnbp ItkcbpsS AcnIn asmcp Itkc hennv ImnI cXojns\ ]nSnncpn. cXojv tNmZnp: "tNn Ctmįs Cs\nsbpw Cusabnensbpw Imcyw ]dtm! ]{Xnepw ncambn ImWmdpWvSv. FmWnh?' "temIns ]e`mKfnep tImSnW n\mfpI Iw]yqdneqsS ]ckv]cw _s Sp, hnhc tiJcnpIbpw ssIamdpIbpw, Fn\v, kwkmcnpIbpw ]ckv]cw ImWpIbpw hsc sNp Hcp hirwJebmWv Cs\v. t]mtm^okneqsS IpI sabn sNp Xpt]mse Hcm asmcmġv Iw]yq hgn sabn Abbvp kwhn[m\amWv Cusabn. ChsbmsWv hniZambn Rm ]noSv \ns ]Tnnmw. BZyw, t\cs ]dt]mse, Ccnmw. Fnv thWw Imev \om. "Cu taipdv \o F{X b{ ImWp pWvSv?'

Iw]yq {]h\fpsS kncmtI{amWv knw bqWnv

 

cWvSp\nesnSns henapXmbncpp BZyIw]yqdmb F\ymIv

(ENIAC). Fm Cv AXns F{Xtbm Bbncw aSv {]h\

tijnbp Iw]yqdpI taipdpw aSnbnepw ssIshbnepw HXp

pp. CeIvt{SmWnIv ssat{ImNnpIfpsS BKa\amWv hnhIcamb

Cu Iw]yq ]ptcmKXnv \nZm\w.

 http://bluemangoa2z.50webs.com/

 

cXojv Fn. "Cu Sn.hn, ssSvssd. s\s\bncnp s]n. AXn\papIfnse sImps]n. ssSvssddns heXp`mKncnp, shfp, ssIbnsem Xpp B IpSp. ]ns cWvSv kv]odpw.' "B, CsXmpw thsdthsd b{f. Fmw Hcp b{ns, Iw]yqdns ]e`mKfmWv. CsXmw tNXmWv Iw]yq. Cu b{`mKtfmtcmpw F{Xt mfw \XmtWm A{Xtmfw thKhpw ImcyaXbpw Iw]yqdns {]h \nepw ImWpw. "\psS {]h\sfb{Xbpw \nb{npXv \psS XetmdmWtm. AXpt]mse Iw]yqdns akvXnjvIamWv Brain s\s\bncnp Cu s]n. CXns\ hnfnp t]cmWv CPU sk{S t{]mknwKv bqWnv.'

kn.]n.bp AYhm knw bqWnv

ImnI hniZoIcnp: "Iw]yqdns Xetmsdv hnfnp kn.]n.bp cWvSp Xcw NqSpIfn hcpp. Hv CXpt]mse taipdv s\s\ \n¡pXv. CXv Sh ssSmWv. asmv CXmWv. (ImnI Hcp ]pkXIw Xpdv Hcp Nn{Xw cXojns\ ImWnp. AXn s]n ]c XmWv. AcbSntbmfw I\n. AXns apnepw Nne _Wpw ssepsamapWvSv. tamWn shncnpXv s]nv apIfnemWv.) CXv, nw sse'. "B... CXmWv RfpsS slUvankv{S ns honencnpXv!' "BImw. C\n \n\smcp hmmbtm Sosd hnfnm. nw _yqn Iw]yq. AXpt] ms. Iw]yqdns Hminbpw \mUohyq lhpw Fmw Cu kn.]n.bphn\ImWv.' "icnbmb An, Iw]yqnwKv sNp b{w F \nev, Cu kn.]n.bp XsbmWv Iw]yq. hnhc tiJcn pXpw XmcXayw sNpXpw IqpXpw IpdbvpXpsamw kn.]n.bphnI mWv. C{nbfneqsS kwthZ\w sNsSp hnhcsfSpp \psS akvXnjvIw t]mse'. "Atm CXn\pffnepw akvXnjvInse t]mse \mUoXpfpw ]e`mK fpsamsbptWvSm?' cXojn\v kwibw. "AtX t]msebs nepw... DWvSv. AXv Rm ]noSv ]dpXcmw. \apv thWvS Imcy \mw kn.]n.bphn\v \Ipp. kn.]n.bphn \pffn Ah kwkvIcn sSpp, kqns

Iw]yqdn\v \mw \Ip hnhc Hmbn kqnp sadn ImUpIfpw hnhcfpsS Iehdbmb lmUvUnkvIpw Bhiym\pk

cWw Um kwkvIcnp t{]mkdpIfpw Fmw `{Zambn AS

nbncnp Iym_n\mWv knw bqWnv.

 http://bluemangoa2z.50webs.com/

 

Spp, Bhiykabv B hnhc \mw ]cntim[n pp...' "AXv icn. ]t, kn.]n.bphn\v \mw Fs\bmWv hnhc \IpXv?' cXojn\v hoWvSpw kwibw. "AXn\mWv Cu cWvSv km[\. CXv Iot_mUv. InsemXpp Cu sImpIpSpbmWv aukv. AsX, Hcn Hcp NpsWvSen.' "Fmw ]dpXcmw.'

t{]mk

"FmWv tNn Cu s]nbw?' "AXmWv ]dbm t]mIpXv. Cs\ntXmb Cu ]pXnb ImeLn ]n.knbnse Ghpw {][m \s `mKw t{]mkdmWv. CXpw kn.]n.bphn\I mWv. CXns tijnbmWv Iw]yqdns thKX \nbnpXv. t{]mkdns thKXbfpXv BhrnbpsS bqWnmb saKm slSvkn (Mega Hertz - MHz) BWv. "C I\n Cdp Iw]yq ssat{Imt{]mkdmWv Pentium. CXns ]e XeapdIfpWvSv. Pentium I, II, III... Hmtcm ]pXnb Xeapdbpw thKns ]gb AXnnI ewLnpp. 100 MHz, 300 MHz, 550 MHz, 650 MHz, 700 MHz

Fns\. Pentium III 700 MHz t{]mkdmWv \psS ]n.knbn. Ctm, Hcp KnKm slSvkntesd t{]mknwKv kv]oUp Pentium 4-Dw Cdngnp. thKX bnse Cu IqSpXe\pkcnv t{]mkdns hnebpw IqSpw.'

dmw (RAM)

"Iw]yqdns ]ckyfn ncambn ImWp Hcp hmmWtm tNn dmw. Fs [mcW CXv RUM FXv AcniIv hv RAM BbXmsWmWv. kpa \mWv ]dXv AXv RAM XsbmsWv,' cXojv Nncnp. "\n\v RUM Ft Hm hcq. IpSnb\mb As apSnb\mb ]p{X\mWtm!' ImnI Ifnbmn.

Iw]yqdns {]h\tijn BbncWn\v

kIyqpIfp Ccw

IpcppNnpIsf

B{ibnmWv

 http://bluemangoa2z.50webs.com/

 

"tZ... A\v ]dmepWvStm!' "t]msSm DWvSm. \ns Aѳ Fs Ambnb\t! \apv RAM-s Imcyw ]dbmw. RAM Fm Random Access Memory. Iw]yqdns Xm¡menI Hmin. Iw]yqdn \mw tPmen sNbvXpsImWvSncnptm kPohambncn pXv Cu sadnbmWv. t{]m{Kmapw \mw sImSpp hnhchpamsbmw XmcXay \SpXv Cu sadnbmWv. CXv saKmss_vknemWv AdnbsSpXv. Iw]yq hmptm {]tXyIw AdnbntWvS Hcp tIm^nKtdj\mWv F{X MB RAM thWsaXv. ctWvSm \mtem MB apXetmv ]e tijnbnepw RAM ImUv e`npw.' "Ctm Cdp an t{]m{KmapIġpw hfsc IqSnb RAM BhiyamWv. DZmlcWn\v, Nn{X shv sNp t^mtmtjmv F t{]m{Kmw NpcpnbXv 32MB DsWvSnte {]hnq. RAM Ftmgpw Hc¸w IqSnbncppXv \ XmWv. Cu Iw]yqdn CncnpXv 128MB RAM BWv. Iw]yqdnse dmw IqSp X ImUpI hmnbnv IqmhpXmWv.' ImnI ]dp. "AXp icnbm. dns Afhv IqSp Znhkfn A\v DukzeXbpw IqSmdpWvSv'. cXojv Nncnp.

lmUv UnkvIv ss{Uhv (HDD)

"Iw]yqdn\v \mw \Ip hnhc tiJcnsSpXv kn.]n.bphn\Iv LSnnncnp lmUv UnkvnemWv. CXns\ tSvsdtmUdn CSp tSnt\ mSv D]anmw. CXns tijnbmWv Iw]yqdns hnhckw`cWtijn. "Hcp ]Xn\v hjw apv, ]n.kn AXns _meynembncp Imev, lmUv UnkvIns Imknn ]dncpXv Intemss_v IWnembncpp. (KB -

Dtiw Bbncw ss_pI). ]noSXv saKmss_mbn (MB - Ziew ss_p I). Ctm AXv KoKmss_v IWnemWv ]dbpXv. (GB - Bbncw saKmss_ v). \nehn e`yamb lmUv UnkvpIfpsS Imknn 20 GBbpw 30 GBbpw HsbmWv. "Cu Iw]yqdnse lmUv UnkvIv 20 GBbmWv. Cu ] ssev sXfnbpnt. lmUv UnkvIv tPmen sNptmgmWv CXv sXfnbp Xv.

 

^vtfmn ss{Uhv (FD Drive)

" l m U v UnkvInse ew D] tbmKnmsX, hnhc tiJcnv tSv sdtmUdnse Imk pI t]mse ]pdta kqnmhp hnhc

Iw]yqdns hnhctiJcW tI{amb lmUv UnkvIv

(]mXen

UnkvIns D`mKw)

 http://bluemangoa2z.50webs.com/

 

kw`cW D]m[nbmWv ^vtfmn UnkvIv. kn.]n.bphnse ZoLN Xpcnepff Cu Zzmcw ImWpnt. aqc Cv hoXnbpw AtX \ofhpap ]c Cu ^vtfmn UnkvIv te_ apIfn tep hcpwhn[w CXn \nt]nv, Iw]yqdn \npw hnhc \apv ^vtfmn UnkvIn tiJcnmw. 1.44 MB

BWv Hcp ^vtfmn UnkvIns kw`cWtijn.' "^vtfmn UnkvIv ss{Uhv {]h\nencnptm Cu ] ssev sXfnncnpw. Cu _Wn Cs\ ]nSn anbm ^vtfmn UnkvIv ]pdphcpw.' ImnI Ah \Xv Fs\sbv ImWnp sImSpp. cXojn\v kwibw: "20 GB tijnbp lmUv UnkvIv FhnsS InSpp, 1.44 MB tijn am{Xap ^vtfmn UnkvIv FhnsS InSpp!' "\n\v Imcyadnbmw', ImnI XpSp. "lmUv UnkvIv XsbmWv hoc. ]t, ^vtfmn UnkvIv AXymhiy amWv. Hcp Iw]yqdn \nv asmnte v sNdnb ^bepI sImWvSpt]mIW san Chsb B{ibntWvSnhcpw.'

kn.Untdmw ss{Uhv

"CsXn\m tNn, CsXms ChnsS shncnpXv?' ASnshncnp tImw]mIvv UnkvIpI NqWvSnmn cXojv tNmZnp. "AXtSm kn.Un? \o kn.Un tbdn ]mv tIġmdnt? hoUntbm kn.Unbnv kn\nabpw ImWmdnt? Iw]yq dnepw CsXms kmyamWv. AXn\mWv CPU-hns apI`mKmbp Cu kn.Un tdmw ss{Uhv. tdmw Fm Read Only Memory. ^vtfmn UnkvIntetmse CXn \apsmpw tcJsSpm\mhn. CXn Hcn tcJsSpnbXv ImWpItbm tIġpItbm sNmt\ Ignbq. Xmsgbpff _ D]tbmKnv CXv XpdpIbpw ASpIbpw sNmw. aukp] tbmKnv \nti \Inbpw sNmw. CXns ImcyaXbnepw hensdpfpWvSv. Cu CD Drive 52x BWv. CDI km[mcW Hcp GBbn Ipdhv kw`cWtijnbp hbmWv. ChbpsS ]eaSv tijnbp tImw]mIvv Unkvp I e`nppWvSv. DVDI FmWv ChbpsS t]cv Digital Versatile Disks.'

 

 http://bluemangoa2z.50webs.com/

 

Iot_mUpw aukpw

"Cu Iot_mUn, ssSvssd dpIfn DXnt\m IpSpX _WpIfpWvStm!' cXojv Ap Xsp. "]nntSm DWvSm. ssSvssd ssSvssddpw Iw]yq Iw]yqdpamWv. Fn\mWv C{Xtbsd IoI Fv hgnsb ]dp Xcmw. "Iw]yqdn\v hnhc \Im \mWv Iot_mUv Fp ]d tm! hnhc \IpXv am{Xa, \mw sNm\m{Klnp sXsv Iw]yqdnt\mSv I¸np Xpw Iot_mUpw aukpw D] tbmKnmWv. aukn\msWn Iev]\ command ]pdsSphnpI F [ta {][m\ambpq. Nne {]tXyI t{]m{KmapIfn hnhc \Im\pw aukv D]tbmKnm Ignbpw!' "t{]m{Kmtam? AXv ]cn]mSnbt. Iw]yqdn Fv t{]m{Kmw?' cXojn\v ]nSnInnbn . "AsXmsbpWvSv. \o Fmw ]Tnpw. Ctm CXv tIġv'. ImnI XpSp. "ssSvssddnteXv t]mses Cu asdfDw ;lkjhDw D]tbmKnv \n\mhiyap ffXv ssSv sNmw. ]t, ChnsS ssSv sNptm ISemkne Ac ]XnbpI. Cu s{_bn\n\Is Hcp {]tXyI kwhn[m\nemWv. AXpt] mse Cu NpsWvSenbpsS Xebn cWvSv _ ItWvSm? CXp]tbmKnv Iw]yq dn\v \nti \Imw.' "tNn, F\nsmcp kwibw.' "Hcmbncw kwibw tNmZnsSm'. "Cu Iot_mUn ssSv sNptm s{_bn\mb kn.]n.bphn\Iv ]Xnbp Xv \sfs\bm AdnbpI? ssSv sNpXv sXntmbmtem?' sImpkwibw. "AXns\ms kq{XapsWvSSm'. ImnI CXn \Iw Iw]yq "Hm' sNbvXncpp. MS Word F t{]m{Kmambncpp Iw]yqdn. "AXn\mWv Cu tamWn.'

tamWn

"tamWntdm? AXv mknet?' cXojv Xs Adnhv ]dp.

 

 

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ImnI Nncnp. "mnepw tamWndpWvSv. Bs, mnse tamWndpsS ]Wnsb mWv?' "Fv ]Wn? mn \ncoWw \SWw. hnIrXn ImWnphsc IWvSp ]nSnWw. Bhiy DhtcmSv Imcyw XncWw, As\. tamWn Fp ]dm¯s \ncoI Ft Aw?' ImnI hoWvSpw Nncnp. "anSp! ChnsSbpw AXp Xsbw. \o Iot_mUneqsSbpw aukneqsSbpw \Ip hnhcsfbpw, Ahsb Iw]yq kwkvIcnpXpsams \nconm\pXmWv sSenhnj t]mse ImWp Cu tamWn. CXpItWvSm? Rm \ns t]cv ssSv sNbvXXv ChnsS sXfnncn pp. "CXv If tamWn dmWv. Sn.hn t]mse, tamWndpw, Ifdpw mv & sshpw DWvSv. mv & sshn\v tamtWmt{Imw Fp ]dbpw. 15 Cv, 17 Cv Fns\ ]ehep nepw tamWndpIfp WvSv. CXv 15 CmWv. apv, Acfpw Afpw am{Xw Iw]yq ssIImcyw sNbvXncp Imembncp p tamtWmt{Imw tamWndpI hym]Iambn cpXv. Ctm an hmdpw t] hmpXv IfdmWv. Nn{X AXpt]mses ImWmatm! kn\nab Sw!' A t m g m W v kv]odpI cXojns {ibnsXv. "CsXn\m kv]o?' "euUv kv]odpI Fn\m? i_vZw tIġm. ]mptIġm'. ]dbp Xn\nSbn ImnI aukv sImWvSv Ftm sNppWvSmbncpp. s]sXm "Zntktc ...' F Km\w. "lu....' FsmcpXkzcw cXojn \npw. "CXv Iw]yqdn \nmtWm?' "AmsX ]ns?' ]mv ImnI \nn.

tamsUw

kn.]n.bphn\v apIfn shncp, ssepIfpsS \ncbp, ]pdIn \npw

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Hcp hb \oWvSp\n sImps]n cXojv s]mnsbSpp. "CXmWt tamsUw?' Ah tNmZnp. "Atm \n\dnbmatm!' ImnI AXnibw {]ISnnp. "Hm, AXv CXns apIfn FgpXnbnp WvStm!' cXojns kzcn IpkrXn. "FSm Im. B, AXv t]ms. CXv XsbmWv tamsUw. tamsUw Fm tamUpteUntamUpte. sSent^mWneqsS _sSpnb cWvSv Iw]yqdp IġnSbnse knepIsf Iw]yqdn\pw sSent^mWn\pw a\nemIp CeIvt{Sm WnIvCeIv{SnIv `mjIfntev ampIbpw adnpIbpw sNp hoc. t\cs ]d Cs\pw Cusabnepsams CXns\ B{ibnmWncnpXv. Cs\ ns Bhn`mhn\v appw, ]t, tamsUn\v tdmfpWvSmbncpp.' "Fm tNn CXns apIfn 56 kbps FsgpXnbncnpXv?' "AXv knepI kzoIcnm\pw Abbvm\pap tijnbmWv. 56 kbps Fp ]dm skn 56,000 ss_vkv Fv kmcw. ss_vkv FmsWv Rm ]noSv ]dbmw.'

kvIm\

"tNn t\ct tamWndns Imcyw ]dtm, Iw]yqdn Nn{XfpsaSpmsav ]d tm! AsXs\bmWv?' cXojv tNmZnp. "\ns Hmin sImmat m!' ImnI Ahs\ A`n\ np. Aht\mSv Iw]yqdncp taitbmSv tNn taibn t\mm ]dp. "Cu ZoLNXp csnbnt? CXm, CXv Xpd m Hcp kv^SnI {]XeamWv. ItWvSm! CXnt t^mtm IangvnshbvpI.' taihenn \nv Hcp t^mtmsbSpv kvIm\dn shv ASp sImWvSpaqSnsh p ImnI. "CXn\pw Rm t\cs ]dt]mse Hcp {]tXyI t{]m{Kmap WvSv. CXmWv ^vfmvs_Uv kvIm\.' ImnI t{]m{Kmw Xpdp. tamWndn B t{]m{Kmans Unkvt hp. aukv ]ehgnp \opIbpw "sRp'Ibpsams sNbvXp ImnI. kvIm\ {]hnp XpSnbXv AXns Hcp aqfen \npw cXojv a\nemn. Xqsh \ndap Hcp {]Imiw kvIm\dns DneqsS \op Xh IWvSp. AXm ImnIbpsS Xs Hcp Nn{Xw tamWndn hNn{Xw. "C\n CXns\mcp ^bs\bnw sImSpv tkhv sNbvXm CXv Iw]yqdn ncambn DWvSmIpw.' "^bs\bnw? tkhv? Fm AXv?' cXojn\v Hpw a\nembn.

Cs\v IWIvjs ImcyaX tamsUns{]h\tijnsbqSn B{ibnncnpp.

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"B AhntSbvsmdmbnn. AXn\p apv C\nbpw lmUvshbdpIsfpdn v ]Tnm\pWvSv'. "lmUvshbtdm?' hoWvSpw ApXw cXojn\v. "AsX. Iw]yqdns b{`mK. lmUvshb D]IcWhn`mKw. kn.]n.bp, Io t_mUv.... CXphsc \o IWvSsXmw lmUvshb'. "Atm tkm^vvshbdpw DWvSmIpatm! Hm, ]{X]ckyfn IWvSnpWvSv. Wanted software developer...' "AsX, tkm^vvshbdpw DWvSv. AXpw Rm ]TnnpXcmw'. "Atm, annkv kXojv, ASp lmUvshb GXmWv?' I]SKuchn cXojns tNmZyw. "Printer, Sir.'

{]n

kvIm\dn\pw Apd ncnp shfp henb s]n ImnI cXojn\v ImWnpsIm Spp. "Iw]yqdnep hnhc ns tImn {]n v sNbvsXSpm\mWnXv. Iw]yqdns tamWndn Ctm ImWpX Sntbm \n\njvSap ^btem Cs\ {]n v sNbvsXSpmw'. "tNn, AXn\papIfn , HP Laserjet FsgpXnbn cnptm!. "DWvSv. HP FXv I \nbpsS t]cmWv Hewlett

Packard. Laserjet FXv {]ndpw. Laser, inkjet, dot

matrix Fns\ aqv hn[apWvSv {]n.' "AsXn\m aqv Xcw?' CXv Laser {]n. Laser civanbpsS klmbmemWv Cu {]ndns {]h\w. Printout NqSm

_nkn\v Bhiyġv A\ptbmPyw tek{]ndmWv

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nbnmWv ]pdphnSpXv. AXn\m AXv XnIpw DWnbXmbncnpw. CXn \InSp hneIqSnb Hcp ImSvdnUvPn \nmWv CXn\mhiyamb cmkhkvXp hcpXv. CXv mv {]ndmWv. Ifdnepw CXv e`yamWv. ]s, henb hnebmIpw.' "Atm CvsPtm?' "CvsPv {]ndn\v hneIpdbpw. CXnse sNdnb ImSvdnUnPn \nv t]dnte v ajn NonbmWnXv {]n v sNpXv. CXpw Ifdn e`npw. tek {]n Xcp {]nnsb{Xbpw "^n\njnwKv' CXn\v Inn. Fm tek {]ndnt\ m {]h\sehv IqSpXembncnpw.' "{]ndn t]dnsb{Xbpw hoXnbn hetmpw CStmpw HmSn \Sv, tUmpI (IppI) {]n v sNbvXv Acfpw Nn{Xfpw BteJ\w sNp {]ndmWv dot matrix {]n. ssSvssddnsetmse dn XsbmWnXn D] tbmKnpXv. dnWn ImSvdnUvPv CXn\mbn e`npw.' "ISbn \nv Inp _nv ASnp {]n CXt. Iv..Iv...F i_vZ n AXv hv sNpXv Rm IWvSnpWvSv,' cXojv Xs Adnhv ]dp. ^vfmkvIn \npw Hcp mntev Imn ]Iv ImnI cXojn\v \In. "ChbmWv Iw]yqdns {][m\ lmUvshbdpI. C\n CXntemtcmnsbpw `mK hniZambn ]Tnmw.' "AXn\v apv F\nsmv ]pdpt]mIWw.' Hcp hnc Dbnmn cXojv ]dp. Xncnph cXojv ]dp: "Ctm GXmsWvSmcp sse ]nSnInn. \msf kpa mn hv Ahs Iw]yq InsbSps. XIpsImSppw. ]ns tNo, Iot_mUnse C{Xtbsd IoIfpsS Imcyw hniZoIcnntm!' cXojv Ccn m Xs Xocpam\nncnpIbmWv. "tkm^vvshb \msf. Ctm t]mbn tlmwhv sNbvXv InSpdv.' ImnI tImphmbnp. "F\nv \msf t\ct Hm^okn t]mIWw. Hcp ]pXnb t{]m{Kmw sNbvXv Xom\pWvSv.'

Npcp--n...

hynIġv kzhpw kzX{hpambn D]tbmKnm t]gvkW Iw]yq l Iw]yqdns {]h\f{Xbpw \SpXv knw bqWnn l Iw]yq sNp

{]hrnI IWvSdnbm tamWn l hnhc tiJcnm knw bqWnnIv

lmUv UnkvIv ss{Uhv l hnhc tiJcnv Iw]yqdn\v ]pdv kqnm ^vtfmn

UnkvIv ss{Uhv l ]mptIġm\pw kn\na ImWm\pw, t{]m{KmapI Iw]yqdn

tNm\pw apw knUntdmw ss{Uhv l t{]mkdns tijnbmWv Iw]yq Imcy

aXbpsS {]Ya ASnd l Iw]yqdn\v Iev]\I \Im aukv l Iw]yqdn hnhc

tNm\pw IampI sImSpm\pw Iot_mUv l Iw]yqdnse hnhc

ASnm {]n l Iw]yqdntev Nn{X tNm kvIm\ l sSent^m

hgn Iw]yqdns\ Cs\v temIhpambn _nnm tamsUw

 

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2 Iw]yq--dns I-_--

BZyZnhkw ]qnbmm IgnbmXncp lmUvshb hniZmwi ImnI ]ntv cXojns\ ]Tnnp. "Iw]yq D]tbmKnpbm AXnsbpn \Sp {]h\sf pdnv hniZambn AdnncnWsan. ImtdmSnpbm AXns b{{] h\fpsS FIvkvs]v Atm! Fncpmepw ns {]h\sas pw nbdnwKv F{]Imcw {]hnpp Fpw AdnbpXpt]mse Iw]yq dns lmUvshb `mKsfpdnpw kmam\yamb Hcp hnm\w BhiyamWv. AXn\memWv Rm C{Xtbsd hniZoIcnXv', Iw]yq "Hm' sNbvXpsImWvSv ImnI ]dp. cXojn\v kwibw: "\mw \Ip hnhc Iw]yqdnsepXpw AXv Iw]yq Xncnv \s ImWnpXcpXpw FXphgnbvmWv, tNn?' "AXmWn\n ]dbm t]mIpXv.'

tkmpIfpw t]mpIfpw

"\obo knw bqWnns ]pdIn Hv t\mv', ImnI ]dp. cXojn\pXw. "tm! sZmXv? hbdpw pw HsqSnsbmcp PKs]mK!' "AXmWv Iw]yqdns Duhnhc hn\nab]mXI.'

 

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"knw bqWnn\v ]pdIn cWvSv tkmpI ImWpw ]h tkm pI. CXnsemv Iw]yqdntev sshZypXn {]hlnnp AC

(Aīt\v Id v) sabn\np XmWv. ASp tkmn \nmWv tamWndntep sshZypXn hnXcWw sNsSpXv. CXm, apIfn ImWp cWvSv I\ pI ItWvSm! AsX, AhXs. sabn \n\nv t\cnv sshZypXn kzoIcn p tamWndpIfpapWvSv.' "]nsbpw Iptd pIfpw tkmpIfpw ImWppWvStm!' "Ahsb \ t]mpI Fv hnfnpp. icnpw t]mv, XpdapJw Xs. AhnsS\nv hnhcfpsS IepI AItpw ]pdtpw {]hln pp!' "Fs\?' Hcp ZoLNXpc tkmn Ipsd ]npI ImWsSp t]mn Kv Aan ImnI ]dp: "CXmWv {]n dntev Iw]yq hnhc ssIamdp ]mce t]mv. {]ndpambn CPU Bibhn\nabw \SpXpw Cu t]mneqsSbmWv.' "sImmatm, XpdapJw!' "AsX, Ignn. CXv hoUntbm t]mv!' asmcp KvC knw NqWvSn ImnI ]dp. "Cu t]mn LSnn tI_nfmWv CPUhn\pw tamWndn\pw CSbnse hnhchn\nab sslth. Ch IqSmsX, aukpw tamsUhpw CPUhpambn kwhZn p kocnb t]mpfpapWvSv', av cWvSv tkmpI NqWvSnmn ImnI hniZo Icnp. "C\n ImWp t]mmWv Iot_mUns\ knw bqWnpambn _n npXv.'

Iw]yqdn Plug-and-Play kuIcyw DsWvSn ]pXnsbmcp Plug-and-

Play lmUvshb kn̯n tNtijw (DZm: tamsUw), ASp

XhW mv sNptm ]pXnb lmUvshbdns\ AXp Xncndnbpw.

USB (Universal Serial Bus) t]mp Iw]yqdn knw Hm^v

sNmsX Xs ]pXnb lmUvshbdpI tNmw.

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"Atm kvIm\dn\v CPUhpambn _amhiyant?' B Hcp t]mv am{Xw ImWmXv cXojns\ ApXsSpn. "anSp Xs DWvS. ]ns, Iw]yqdpambn _sSpmsX kvIm\ sImsWvSp Imcyw? Cu Iw]yqdn Hcp kq{XWn {]tbmKnncn pIbmWv. ChnsS kvIm\dn \npamWv {]ndntev IWIvj.' "Ftm! hbdpIfpsS Hcp temIw!' "hbdpIfpsSb. hbdpIfm _nns b{`mKfpsS Ap XtemIw!' Iw]yqdns tamWndn CSXphiv apIfn \nv Xmtgv cWvSp aqp hcnbn Iptd sImpNn{Xfpw Fsmstbm t]cpIfpw h`wKntbmsS sXfnp \np. kv{Io\nse _mn `mKw kzamb \oemImiw. ImnI Itkcbnencp v Hcp apWnsb Spv tamWndn\p apIfnse s]mSn XpSp. A IS XpSbv m\p]tbmKnpXp t]mep XpWn. Iot_mUv aptmv Xnshv cXojnt\mSv ASpp Itkcbnencnm ]dp. AtmgmWv cXojv Iot_mUns Imcyw HmXv. "tNn, Iot_mUns\pdn v hniZambn ]noSv ]dp Xcmsat ]dXv?' cXojv tNmZnp. "AsX, ]dp Xcmatm!'

Iot_mUv

ImnI aukv ]nSnv \opIbpw Iptd "nv' sNpIbpw sNbvXp. Iw]yq tamWndns kv{Io\n ]e NXpcnI sXfnphcnIbpw A{]Xy amhpIbpw sNbvXp. HSphn Cwojnep Hcp Iv kv{Io\n sXfnp \np. "C\n {intmfq', ImnI ]dp. Igvk It{Sm "Iw]yqdn \ FnsSp m\w ImWnpXcp kqNIamWv Cu tUmIypsans XpSnembn sXfnbp Ibpw adbpIbpw sNp ASbmfw. AXmWv Igvk. tUmIypsan FhnsSsbnepw \mw Fsnepw sNm \m{Klnpsn Igvkdns\ AhnsS sImWvSphcWw. B

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D]tbmKn\p XmWv apIfntempw Xmtgmpw het mpw CStmpw D ASbmf tcJsSpnb Cu Igvk It{Sm IoI.' Igvk \mep ZniIfntepw Cu IoI D]tbmKnv \opXv ImnI cXojn\v ImWnpsImSpp. tUmIypsanep amdns Ahkm\sanbm ]ns Igvk hetmpw Iotgmpw \om Ignbn. AYhm, B IoI Atm D]tbmKnm Ignbn. Page up, Page

down, End, Home Fns\ ASbmfsSpnb IoIfpw Igvkdns\ \op [w \nhlnpp. tUmIypsans Hcp t]Pv hmbnpsImWvSncnptm ap`mKtv aSnt mIm Page up Io Aanbm aXn. Page down Io Aaptm tUmIypsa ns ASp `mKw kv{Io\n sXfnbpp. Home Io Igvkdns\ tUmIypsans Bcw`n Fnm klmbnpp. End Io Ahkm\nepw.' "Cu IoI apNne \neIfnepw D]tbmKnmw. AXv hgnsb.' F: "Cu henb Io ItWvSm! Enter Ftm Return Ftm CXn ImWmw', ImnI cXojnt\mSv ]dp. HmtdnwKv t{]m{KmapI Nn{XhyhbnemXncp Imev Iw]yqdn\v \Ip command ssSp sNbvXv Cu Io Aanbm AXv Iw]yqdn sdPn sNpambncpp. ]pXnb t{]m{KmapIfn Cu IobpsS tPmen Ipdp. sImSp p Iam v OK sNm\mbn Cu Io Ctmgpw D]tbmKnpp.' "CXm, MS Word t{]m{Kman CXv \o ImWv', ImnI ]dp. tUmIypsanse Hcp hcnbpsS ]IpXnbn Igvk sImWvSphv ImnI Enter Io Aan. hcn apdnv, ]IpXn Xmgs hcnbmbn. Igvk ]pXnb hcnbpsS XpSnembn.

hnhn[Xcw t]mpI:

1. PS2 t]mv

2. USB t]mv

3. Serial t]mv

4. Parallel t]mv

USB t]mv hgn IWIvSv sNmhp UnsshkpIġv am{Xta knw

Hm^v sNtWvSXn F kuIcyw _m[IamIq. atXv t]mv hgn

Fv Unsshkv tNptmgpw knw Hm^v sNpIXs thWw.

Csæn t]mv tISphtpw.

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"Cs\ ]mc {Km^v Xncnm Cu Io D]tbmKnmw.' FkvtIv: "apIfn CSs Ambn ImWp Esc Fsgp Xnb Io, B hmns A n e p {]tbmP\w Xs bmWv \IpXv csSpI. Iw]yqdn\v Hcp Iam v \InbXv Imk sNmt\m, \nehnep kv{Io\n \nv ]gb kv{Io\n Fmt\m Cu _ Aanbm aXn. _mvkvt]kv: "F IobpsS apIfn CStmv ASbmfw C Cu Io ItWvSm? CXmWv Backspace Io. Nne Iot_mUpIfn Cu Iobn Backspace FpXs ASbmfsSpnbncnpw. Igvkdns CSXp`mKv ssSv sNbvX am ambvpIf bm Cu Io Aanbm aXn', ImnI cXojns\ t\mn. "Atm Cu Iotbm tNn?' Del FSbmfsSpnb Iobn hncean cXojv tNmZnp. Uneov: "ItWvSm \o Fm sNbvXXv Fv?' ImnI tIm]w \Snp. cXojv Nncnp. "ampt]mbn At? ]nSnInntmbn. Igvkdns heXp`m Kv ssSv sNbvXXv ambvpIfbm\mWv Cu Io At? A, FmWv Cu Del?' "Del FXv Delete FXns NpcpamWv. \ow sNpI, ambvp IfbpI Fsmsbw.' ^wKvj IoI: "F1, F2, F3,...... ChbmWv ^wKvj IoI (Function keys). apIfnse \ncbn ImWp F1 apX F12 hscbp IoI Iw]yqdnse [m\p

 

 http://bluemangoa2z.50webs.com/

 

jvTm\ XmtmepIfmWv. Ctm ImWp Word t{]m{Kmans ]nXmalm\mbncp Wordstar-s Imev Hcp ^b tkhv sNm F3 F Io AapIbmbn cpp ]Xnhv. As\ Hmtcm _\pw Hmtcm [,' ImnI hniZoIcn p. jn^vv: "C\n Rm ]dbmw tNn. Shift FsgpXnb Cu Io AannSnv A c ssSv sNbvXm Imn (henbcw) hcpw, At? ssSvssddn As\bmWtm!' cXojv ktmjtmsS ]dp. "AsX, Imn am{Xa, iXam\w(%) B v (&) apXemb Nnӧ Inm\pw CXp Xs amw. IqSmsX, Caps lock FsgpXnb Cu Io Aanb tijw ssSv sNbvXm hcp Ac Fmw Imn Bbncnpw.' Cskv: "Ckv FsgpXnb Io FmsWv Rm ]dbmw. Fsnepw Delete sNbvXv, asmcp `mKv Igvk sImWvSphv Insert Aanbm t]mb `mKw AhnsS hcpw.' kwibtmsS cXojv ]dp. "Ctm \o ]dXv Iw]yq `mj. Bs, Fs\ a\nembn?' "tIma skkv' "DWvSm...' ImnIbpsS kzcn A`n\\w. Numlock: "DWvSm Fv hnfnv IfnbmpIsbmpw thWvS. Cu Numlock FmsW pw Rm ]dbmw. AXpw tIma skkv. Cu Io Aanbm apIfn Numlock FsgpXnbnSs CUnt sXfnbpw. Atm, heXphis Cu AsfgpXnb IoI Aanbm A hcpw kv{Io\n. Numlock

Fm Number lock, Caps lock t]mse.' "sNdp ]Tnp t]mbn', ImnI Ahs\ A`n\np. "AsX, heXphi v Hcp NXpcnse t]mse ImWp Cu

 

Ctrl, Alt, Shift Fo tImnt\j IoItfmsSmw ap IoI Aap

Xv sa\pIfpsS klmbanmsX IampI \Im D]Icnpp.

DZmlcWn\v anhmdpw t{]m{KmapIfn Ctrl IotbmsSmw C

AapXv Copy sNm\p IpdpphgnbmWv (Shortcut keys). sa\phnse

Iamnt\msSmw Ipdpphgnbpw tcJsSpnbncnpw.

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IoIfmWv \yqadnIv Io]mUv (Nu meric keypad). sabn t_mUnse AfpsS IoI D]tbmKnpXnt\m FfpamWv CXp]tbmKnm.' _mnbmb IoIfpsS D]tbmKw ImnI hniZoIcnp. Sm_v Io (Tab key) Sm_ptej\v XsbmWv D]tbmKnpXv, {][m\ambpw. It{Sm (Control-

Ctrl), Hmīv (Alt) IoI ap Nne IoIfpambn Hnaptm Ipdpphgn Bbn {]hnpp.' "Iot_mUns Imcyw F\nntm ]nSnInn. C\n Rm {]mIvSn Bbn ]Tntmfmw. ]t tNn, Cu aukns D]tbmKw FmWv? tNn AXpsImWvSm Wtm IqSpXepw ]WnsbSppXv', cXojns HupIyw GdpIbmWv. "AtXbv, hninv Ip ImWm\n. aukns Imcyw DuWp Ignv.'

aukv F Iam

Iw]yq Hm^v sNmsXXs ImnIbpw cXojpw t]mbn DuWp Ignp. XncnsI apdnbnsen Ccptmtgpw ImnIbvv sNdnb DdShv. Ahsfm v tImphmbnp. "\Sn tNn, Iw]yqdns I_ԧfpsS IY Cp Xs ]dp XoWw', cXojv \n_np. "Fp sNmw! \ns ]Tnnmsav hmp Xpt]mbnt! A\p`hnpI Xs". Nn{X ASn m\amnbp Hm tdj knw \nehn htXmsS Iw]yp dnse IamWvSdpsS tPmen anhmdpw ]qambnXs auknt Xmbn. MS-DOS F kn̯n Hmtcm Iampw ssSv sNWam bncpp. AXn\m I a m p I f { X b p w Iot_mUneqsSbmbncp p. Fm Windows

\nehn htXmsS IY amdn (Windows t]mep ap t{]m{KmapIfpw). Iw]yq dn\v \tIWvSXmbnhcp Iev]\If{Xbpw Nn{Xcqt]W apIqn b{n knthinnncnpIbmWv. FhnsSbmWv Cu Iev]\I Fv XnnSnpItb thWvSp. CXv aWp IWvSp]nSnpIbmWv aukv F b{psWvSenbpsS ]Wn. aukns ap`mKv ImWp _WpIfmWv Iam v ]pdsSphnpXv. aqpw, cWvSpw, Hpw _WpI D aukpI DWvSv. Nne aukpIfn (Scroll

Mouse) cWvSp _WpIġnSbn hnc sImWvSv Idmhp Hcp N{Iw ]nSnnncn pw. CXmWv Scroll wheel. taita, Iw]yq D]tbmKnpbmfns heXp`m KmWv aukv shbvpI. (CSXp ssIbmcpsS Imcyn Imcyġv henb

 

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hyXymkapWvSv). IampI \Im, D]tbmKnpbmsf klmbnpXv kv{Io\n sXfnbp aukv t]mbn BWv. tamWndns kv{Io\n FmbnSpw aukns Igvk Fnm Ignbpw. km[mcWbmbn CStmv sNcn ASbmfambn ImWsSp aukv Igvk, aukv ]mUn aukv NennpX\pkcnv kv{Io\n Nenpw. kv{Io\n ImWp sa\phn \nv Iam v XncsSpp Ignm _ "nv' sNpI. Cu nv BWv Iw]yqdn\v sXcsSp \ntiw {]mtbmKnIambn \Ip Xv. aukn\v Htm ctWvSm aqtm _WpI DWvSmImsav ]dtm! Hntesd _Wp aukn anhmdpw IampIf{Xbpw CSXp `mKs _Wns "nnwKn'emWv e`npI. heXp`mKs (\Sphnsebpw) _ t{]m{KmapIġ \pkcnv hyXykvXamb [ A\pjvTnpp.' "km[mcW \nebn F BIrXnbncnp Igvk (sSIvv hv sNpt m CXv Hcp sImp _m t]msebmbncnpw), aukv nv sNbvXpIgnm, \ntiw \Smpwhsc aWLSnImcns BIrXn kzoIcnpw. aukv Igvkdn\v BIjIamb BIrXnI sXcsSpm\p Hm]vj\pI e`yamWv.' "CXmWv aukv. C\n \o Cu auskmp ]nSnt. B, As\b. \osbm am{Insb ]nSnpIbmtWm? CXm Cs\. Xhnc CSXp hiv. apdps ]nSn

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WvS. Fen HmSntmhpIsbmpan. sNdphncepw tamXnchncepw aukns heXp `mKncnWw. NqWvSphnc sImWvSv thWw CSXp _ nv sNm (se^vv nv)', ImnI ]dp \nn hensbmcp tImphmbnp. "C\n DdWw.' cXojv hnSm\p `mhan. "Ia_ԯns IYI Ahkm\nntm tNn. AXv XonpaXn Cpdw.' "Xon. ]s DdmXncnWsan C\n Imn thWw. Imn \o CSmtam?' "CSmsX ]ptam! tNnbbt honse sIm', cXojv sIm\w Ipn. "t]mSm, DWvSm.' Imnp tijw ImnI ASp ]mTntep ISp.

Iw]yq kwcWw

AXohtemehpw hfscssv Xw kw`hnmhpXpamb CeIvt{SmWnIv kņfpw kIyqpIfpamWv Iw]yqdns Hmtcm b{LSInepw DXv. sshZypXo{]hmlnep hyXnbm\ lmUvshbdn\pw tkm^vvshbdn\pw Hcp t]mse tZmjIcamWv. tIcfn Cu A]ISkmyX hfsctbsdbmWv. Hcp CSn anptmtg pw sSenhnj\ pw tSv s d t m U d p w t]mep D]IcW fpsS {][m\`mK Icnpt]m Ipwhn[w HpwXs hnizmktbmKya m Hcp sshZypXnhnXcWkw hn[m\amWtm \ a p p X v . thmtPns s]s p ]X\hpw IpXnpIbhpw ChnsS HcpXa. CsXmw Iw]yq dn\v hfsc tZmjIc amWv. CPU-hn Is kp{][m\ kwhn[m\ \in pXp apX Iw]yqd n s e t{]m{KmapIfpw Umbpw tISphcm (corrupt BIm) hsc kmyXbpWvSv. CmcWfm thmtPv ncambn \np Hcp kwhn[m\neqsS thWw CeIv{Snv sabn\n \npw Iw]yqdntev sshZyqXn {]hlnpXv.

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apv CXn\mbn D]tbmKnncpXv skthm s_nssekdpIfpw kn.hn.SnIfpw (CVT Constant Voltage Transformer) BWv. ]t, Cv Ch A]cym]vXambncn pp. s_nssekdpw CVT-bpw sse\nse sshZypXn \nebvptXmsS "Hm^m' Ipp. Windows t]mep ]pXnb t{]m{KmapIfn, sshZypXo{]hmlw s]sv \nebvpXv Ipgw krjvSnmw. Iw]yqdns {]h\w Bimkyamb coXnbn Ahkm\nn tija ]h Hm^v sNpsXn t{]m{Kmw corrupt

BIm\pw tiJcn hnhc \jvSsSm\pw kmyXbpWvSv. AXn\m, sabn sse\nse sshZypXn \nept]mbmepw, thWvS hn[w Iw]yq Shut down sNpwhsc sbnepw sshZypXn \nebvm Hcp kwhn[m\amWmhiyw. Cu kwhn[m\ amWv UPS - Uniterrupted Power Supply. UPS {]hnpXv henb _mdnIfpsS klmbmemWv. ]pdsa CXn ]e CeIvt{SmWnIv correcting kwhn[m\ D]tbmKnppapWvSv. AXn\m XmcXtay\ hfsc IrXyamb Hcp output, UPS- \npw e`npp.'

Npcp--n...

Iw]yq HmHm^v sNm CPU-hnse ]h _ l AC sabn\pambn Iw]yqdns\ _nnm CPU-hn\v ]pdInse ]h tkmv l {]n, tamWn

Fns\ ap `mKfpambn knw bqWnns\ _nnm t]mpI l Iw]yq

dn\v hnhc \Im, Igvk m\w amm, IampI \Im As\ ]e

Imcyn\pw Io t_mUn ]e skIvj\pI l aukv Igvkdns (Pointer) cq]w

ammw l kpnc sshZypXo{]hmlw Ddmn Iw]yq kwcnm UPS

3 I-_--ns arZp-e-Xp tkm^vvshb

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"AWphnkvt^mS\ns knmw \o ]Tnnnt?', ImnI tNmZnp. "]ns. Fs HcnjvShnjbat AXv! AtNX\ambncnp Hcp bqtd\nbw amntev, Hcmn\pntev Hcp \yqt{Sm ISn hnSpp. ]ns Znhnkqcyk l{kky..... Bbncw kqcymcpsS tXP:{]fbw. Bs, Iw]yqdpw Bw t_mw_pambn Fp _w?' cXojn\v a\nembn. "D]abpsS Imcyn Rm aWvSnbmWv. ]s, \o ]dXv icnbmWv. Hcp Ipv bqtd\nbw Hcp `mKv IqSnnSpXpsImWvSv Hpw kw`hnpn. AXv AtNX\ambncnpw. Fm Hcp \yqt{Sm AXns\ ssNX\yh¡cnpp.' "AsX' "Hcp b{w F \nebvv Iw]yq AtNX\amWv. hXpI apSn Hcp Iw]yq hmnsmWvSphm AXhnsS CcnpItbbpq {]tbmP\clnXambn. AXn\v ssNX\yw \Im {]tXyIhkvXp BhiyamWv. IWp Iqm\pw Is gpXm\pw ]mptIġm\pw Hs. AXmWv tkm^vvshb.' "tkm^vvshb?' "AsX. CXv b{`mKtfm, hbtdm Hpa. b{s {]h\aam

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p kwI t{]m{KmapI BWv. \mw \Ip hnhc Iw]yqdns Xetmdn Fnm\pw, kwkvIcn m\pw AhnsS \npw XncnsSpm\pap At\Iw kwIfpsS kamlmcw. AXmWv tkm^vvshb.' "Cu Windows Fv ]dbpXv tkm^vvshbdmtWm?' "AsX. AXns\ Hm tdnwKv knw tkm^vvshb Fp ]dbpw.' D Z m l c W n \ v , ssat{Imtkm^vns MS

Office F t{]m{KmapIfpsS kapbw DWvSv. CXnse Hmtcm LSIhpw Hmtcm {]tXyI Bhiyn\mbn XmdmnbXmWv. IWpqm\pw NmpI Xmdmm\pap tkm^vvshbdmWv ssat{Imkv^ vns FIvk (MS Excel). Hcp hynbpsS [\Imcyw ssIImcyw sNp tkm^vvshbdmWv aWn (MS Money). Isgpv, ]pkvXIsagpv, FUnnwKv Fnhbvp]tbmKnpp, Word F tkm^vvshb. t^mtm ssIImcyw sNm \p]tbmKnp tkm^vvshbdmWv t^mtmtjmv. ]pkvXIw Unssk sNm\pw t]PpI DWvSmm\pw Pagemaker, Ventura, QuarkXpress XpSnbhbpWvSv. "]t, CsXmpw Xs AtNX\ambncnp Hcp Iw]yqdn {]hnn m kmya. Atm Fv amw?' ImnI tNmZnp. "AXmtWm {]bmkw? Cu tkm^vvshbdpIġv Iw]yqdn\Iv Ibdnm \p ]mXbpw tNtdm\p CShpw DWvSmIWw', cXojv ]dp. "AsX. Iw]yq Hcp CeIvt{SmWnIv b{amsWXv \n\dnbmatm. ]e C e I v t { S m W n I v b{fpw \n\v ]cnNnXamWv. DZmlc Wn\v \ns stereo

player. AXn \apv ]mv tIġmw. As n kn\na ImWm Sn.hnbpw

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VCR-Dw DWvSv. Cu ]dsXms Iw]yqdnepw km[yamsWnepw CXns {]h \coXn XnIpw hyXykvXamWv. Hcp Iw]yqdns {][m\ {]hrn, hnhc (information AYhm data) kwkvIcnpI FXmWv. \apv e`np sSent^m _n t\mq. \psS \dn \npw t]mbnp tImfpI, AhbpsS ssZLyw, NmPv XpSn At\Iw Imcy AXn e`yamWv. e`np Hmtcm data-bpw (DZmlcWn\v, Hmtcm Call-Dw AXns ssZLyhpw) Iw]yqdn sNbvXphncn p t{]m{Kmans ASnm\n kwkvIcnsSppIbmWv Iw]yq sNp Xv.' AXn\v ]t, Iw]yqdns\ Fs\ \psS Bhiyw ]dp a\nempw? AXn\v aebmftam Cwotjm Adnbmtam? C. AXn\v a\nemIpXv AXns `mj am{Xw Machine Language. b{`mj Iw]yqdn\Iv (eWn\v) kznpI {]hnpXmbn \apv IW mmw. Hcp kznn\v cWvSv position-IfmWv DXv: Off, On. AXmbXv sshZypXn Cm Ahbpw D Ahbpw. Off position "0' Bbpw On position "1' Bbpw Iw]yq a\nempp. \mw Iw]yqdn\v \Ip hnhc A{Xbpw Iw]yqdn "0' Ifpw "1'Ifpw D]tbm Knv represent sNpp. "0'Ifpw "1'Ifpw D]tbmKn p Cu Iw]yq `mjsb Machine Language

Fv ]dbpp. "shdpw cWvS sImWvSv Cu coXnbn \mw \Ip hnhc A{Xbpw Iw]yq a\nem pXv Fns\ bmWv?' cXojn\v Ap Xw. "AXp ]dbmw. cWvS D]tbmKnp Cu coXnsb Binary System

Fp ]dbpw. \ns IWv mkn \o CXv ]Tnpw.' Hcp kznn\v F{X position

DWvSv cWvSv. Atm cWvSv kznn\v \mev. apsambmtem?  "Bdv'

 

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"AsSm DWvSm. Zm CXv t\mv.' Switch A Switch A

1 (on) 0 (off)

Cs\ on, off F {Ian kznpIfpsS Fw IqSptmdpw AXp]tbm Knv {]Xn\n[oIcnmhp combinations Asæn codes kznpIfpsS Fw (n) h A\p]mXn IqSpp 2n. AXmbXv 22=4, 23=8, 24=16 etc.

Binary System-nse Asf Iw]yq `mjbn bits Fv hnfnpw. "1' FXpw "0' FXpw Hmtcm bit-IfmWv. 8 bit-s Hcp Iqs Hcp byte Fp hnfnpw. Iw]yqdnse ASnm\ bqWnv BWv byte FXv. Iw]yqdn \mw \Ip Hmtcm character-Dw Hcp byte D]tbmKnp {]nXn\n[m\w sNpp. "Hp IqSn hyammw. Hcp byte- 8 bit DsWvSp ]dtm. AXmbXv 8 kznpI \apv e`yamWv. 8 kznv D]tbmKnv F{X combinations DWvSmmw....? sXnm Rm \ns sNhn s]mmpw.' "...... 2n, n=8 AXmbXv 2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2..... 256.... ' "anSp! Atm 256 hyXykvX tImUpI e`yamWv.' Hcp byte sImWvSv 256 IymcIvSdpIsf {]Xn\n[m\w sNmw. DZmlcWn\v A

F Acw Iw]yq Fns\ a\nempw Fv t\mmw. A = 01000001. CXv ASCII standard-{]Imcw. EBCDIC F asmcp standard-Dw DWvSv. Cu coXnbn Fm characters-Dw {]Xn\n [m\w sNmw. AXmbXv A, B, ....Z. a, b, .....z.

0,1,....9 ]ns *, -, +, /, &, $, _ Fns\ H\ h[n IymcIvSdpIfpw. Cu `mj D]tbm

b{`mj KWnXimkv{XcoXnbmWv D]tbmKnpXv. Iw]yqdn Hcp

ss_\dn UnPnns\ Hcp bit Fv hnfnpp. Ccw 8 bit-I

tNm Hcp byte Bbn. ASnm\kwJybmb 2s 10 haqeyw

(210 = 1024) Hcp Intemss_v (Kilobyte - KB). Ccw 1024KB tNcpt

m Hcp saKmss_v (Megabyte - MB). 1024MB = 1 GB.

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Knv Iw]yqdnt\mSv Hcp Imcyw ]dbWsan F{X typing thWvSnhcpw? Hmtcm Acnepw 8 Fw hv. BtemNnmt\ h. Fm BZyIme Iw]yqdpIfn imkv{X CcnemWv Imcy \SnbncpXv. AXn\v Ah punch

cards F Hcp kwhn[m\w D]tbmKnp. "]noSv ]e amfneqsSbpw ISv hv Cwojv `mjbnse hmpI D] tbmKnv Nne {]tXyI coXnbnep command-I hgn Iw]yqdns\ Imcy ]dv a\nemmw Fmbn. Atmgpw Iw]yq AXns\ AXntXmb `mjbn tev (Machine language) ]cn`mjsSpnbmWv {]hnpXv. Iw]yq {]hnnp B AdnbmsX Xs Iw]yq Cu Cwojv IampIsf machine

language Bpp. CXn\v Hcp ]cn`mjI Iw]yqdn {]hnpp Interpreter. Cu Interpreter CmsX Iw]yq {]hnnpI Akm[yw. CXns\ bmWv Operating System Fv hnfnpXv. Bill Gates F alms hf XpSpXv ChnsS \nmWv. Atlw MSDOS, AXmbXv Microsofit Disk Operating System F Hcp Interpreter DWvSmn. AXn\v temIsamSpw hfsc {]Nmcw InpIbpw sNbvXp. "tNn, Cu kznpIfpsS Imcyw ]dnt? \ sImSpp databpw apw kznpI D]tbmKnmWv tcJsSppXv Fpw ]dp. Atm Id v t]mbm Asæn Iw]yq Hm^mnbm \ sa\sncpv ASnptInb sXmw \jvSsSnt?' ImnIbvv DWvSs tNmZyw \t cknp. Ah\v _pnbpWvSv. "Dv. ]s, AXv ]cnlcnmsX ]ntm. Iw]yq F b{w a\pjycmin pthWvSn \nnXp Xs \psS CcnWn Hgnhmm\mWv.' "\mw Iw]yq {]hnnptm AXns memory-bnemWv Imcy Fmw sNpXv. Rm t\ct RAM-s\pdnv ]dXv Hmbnt? \ns RUM? RAM A\h[n CeIvt{SmWnIv NnpI ASnb HmWv. CXn\Iv

 

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{]hnp \nch[n kznpI Idnm Ahbn {]h\clnXamIpp. AXmbXv \ A{Xbpw t\cw sNbvX ]Wn "tKm]n!' CsXmgnhmm\mWv \ "save' sNpXv. "Saving' \sf Fs\ csSppp Fp t\mmw. DZmlcWn\v Rm Cu MS Word D]tbmKnv \ns tN\v Hcp Iv type sNp IbmWv Fp IcpXpI. ASnp Xocpwapv F\nv Iw]yq Hm^v sNtWvSXmbn hcnIbmsWn Rm AXv Save sNpw. Cs\ sNptm RAM- DWvSmbncp B letter Iw]yqdnse hard disk- sNspp. Iw]yqdns \nehd. AhnsS Fmw `{Zw.' "Idp t]mIptm FpsIm WvSv hard disk- \npw B letter

amp t]mIpn? AhnsS kznpIfnt?' "DWvSv. AhntSbpw kznpIfp WvSv. ]s, AhnSs kznp I CeIvt{SmWnIv A. ImnIamWv. Imkns dnWnteXpt]mse Hcp Magnetic

coating D, teml\nnXamb {]Xeap HmWv lmUv UnkvIv. Ahn Ss kznpI Cu {]Xense sImp sImp ImfmWv. Ah Id v t]mbmepw ampt]mIpn. Bhiyw A\pkcnv AhnsS \npw, kqnpsh ncnp ^bepI hosWvSSppp. Bhiyw Ignh ambvpIfbpIbpamhmw, Hcp Imknset]mse. Cu kz`mhkhntijXsImWvSv RAM-s\ Volatile memory

Fpw lmUv UnkvIns\ Permanent memory Fpw hnfnpp.' "Okay?' "Okay'

HmtdnwKv knw

AtNX\ambncnp Iw]yqdn\pw {]hryppJamb tkm^vvshbdpIġpw CSbn Chsb ]ckv]cw _nnp Hcp ]mX thWw. B ]mXbmWv Hmtd nwKv knw. User-friendly Bb, AYhm D]tbmKnp Bfns\ hnjannm, Ccw Hcp Operating System BWv Windows. asmcp knamWv Linux. \psS ]pXnb ]T\coXnXs CXn\v DZmlcWamWv. Apple Fpw Grapes Fpw t_mUn FgpXn AXns\pdnv hnhcnv a\nempXnt\mfpw F{Xtbm efnXhpw ^e{]ZhpamWv Bnfpw apncnbpw As\s sImWvSphv ImWn

 

 

 

 

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psImWvSv AXns\pdnv ]TnnpXv, At? Adnbnt? DPEP. CtX XXzw DsmWvSpsImWvSv krjvSn HmtdnwKv kņsf GUI (Graphical User Interface)

FmWv hnfnpXv. Iw]yqdns AXnkoamb kwI Hpw Xs AdnbmsX Hcmġv Iw]yq {]hnnm km[yampI FXmWv CXns ]nnse Dtiyw.' "]{Xn CubnsS Windows Mesbpdnv Rm hmbnp. FmWXv?. ImnI Nncnp: "tXmn tIdn shSnshbvssSm DWvSm. Hs Rm ]dp Xcmw.' "temIntehpw henb, Hma\mb, tPmen sNp [\nI\mWv Atacn mc\mb _n tKvkv. Atlns I\nbmb ssat{Imtkm^vv tImtdj tXmWv MS Windows. MS FXv Microsoft FXns Npcpw.' ssat{Imtkm^vns ]qIme t{]m{Kmambncpp MS-DOS (Disk Operating

System). Cs Windowss m\mbncpp AXv. Iw]yqdn hnhc t{]mkv sNpXns hym]vXn hnpIbpw ]pXnb Bhiy DSse SppIbpw sNbvXtm IampI Hmtcmpw ssSv sNpIbpw, ssSv sNt WvSp IampI HmncnpIbpw sNpI FXv {iaIcambn. DZmlcWn\v: ^vtfmn UnkvInse hnhc ImWWsan MS-DOS Iamns\: a: (+Enter)

dir (+ Enter)

type filename (+ Enter);

Hcp {]tXyI ^b Uneov sNWsan del filename (+ Enter); Hcp Ubd

 

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IvSdnbnse ^b apgph Uneov sNWsan del *.*

(+ Enter)

Nn{Xfpw, Nen{X fpw B\ntaj\psams, F m n \ p a p ] c n s\vhnwKpw, A\nhmcyamb tXmsS Cu coXn _pnap p\ndXmbn. Cu kmlNcy nemWv BZyw Bn I\nbpw ]noSv _ntKvkpw PmeI kwhn [m\w sImWvSphXv. Nn{X fpsS klmbtmsS hfsc efnXamb coXnbn Iw]yqdns\ A\pkcnn p kwhn[m\w: Graphical User Interface (GUI).

"PmeIfneqsS \mw Hmtcm t{]m{Kmantepw Fnt\mpp, Ah D] tbmKnpp. Htc kabw Hne[nIw PmeI (t{]m{KmapI) Xpdmw F XmWv Windows-s khntijX. Iw]yq F sInSns D]tbmKw Ignbpt m P\epI Hmtcmmbn ASv HSphn hmXn jv Uu sNbvXv \mw ]pdpISpp', ImnI BemcnIambn ]dp. "MS-DOS Bbncptm BZyhnZzm', ImnI XpSp. "GUI Bbn _ntKvkv Windows 3.0-Dw ]ns 3.1-Dw Cdn. Atmgpw MSDOS- s {]`mhw ]qambpw \nencpn. Fm ]pXnb ]pXnb ktX Bhiyambn hcpIbpw koWXI IqSnhcpIbpw sNbvXpsImWvSncpp. CXns IqsSbmWv Cs\ns AXnibIcamb hym]\w. B Hc\nhmcyXbn \npamWv Windows-95 PsaSpXv. kmtXnIcwKpw hmWnPytaJebnepw CsXmcp hnhw Xsbmbn.' "Windows 95 cq]I\ sNbvXtm Cs\v Iw]yq temIs Hcp taJe am{Xambncpp. AXn\m Cu kn̯n At\Iw Hm]vjkn Hpam {Xambncpp Cs\v. ]noSv Aev]w IqSn ]cnjvIrXamb Windows 98 hp.' "Fm CXn\v tijw, AYhm Ign aqv hjn\pn Iw]yq D] tbmKcwKv AhmNyamb Hcp IpsmgpmWv kw`hnXv. ssk_kvt]kv Fv temIw \psS hnc¯pn! temIns GXp aqebn\npw

Fp hnhchpw Itkcbn\npw Fgpt¡msX kzmbamm

Cs\v. {_nojv sse{_dnbnse ]pkvXIfn ]cXmw; Atacn

bnse NqSamb sjb GXmsWdnbmw; honencpv dnebkv

tmv hmmw; Ghpw ]pXnb Iw]yq sKbnw Hmsse\mbn

hmmw.

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AXmWXns nv!

kv{Io\n aukns t]mbn IsWvSnbtm, At? ]mUn aukv \optm AX\pkcn v kv{Io\n t]mbn \opw FXv ]pXnb Adnhn. aukv \on t]mbn kv{Io\ns CSt Iogv tImWvSphcnI. AhnsSbmWtm Start _. t]mbn AXn shv, aukns CSXp_ Hcn AapI se^vv nv. AXm, Start _Wn\npw Hcp sa\p t]m]vAv sNbvXp. AXn Programs -> Accessories -> Games -> Solitaire FSppI. AXm NopIfnfw. hntUmbpsS apI`mKv HcSpv Nov Iangvn shncnpw. AXns heXp`mKv Hgn \mev If. B \ncv Xmsg Xpdncnp NopIfpsS Ggv If. Xpdncnp NopI, Hmtcm Xchpw (_vkv, kvt]Uvkv, lmvkv, UbaWvSvkv) apIfnse \mep InIfn Ace apX King

hsc {Iaambn ASpemWv Ifn. Xpdncnp Non se^vv nv sNpI. AXv skeIvSv BIpp. apIfnse InI Hgn ncnptm, Xpdn. NopIġv apIfn Ace DsWvSn, AXn t]mbn shv aukns CSXp _ s]sv cWvSp XhW AapI. Un nv sNptm aukv CfIcpXv. Ace

X\nsb apIfnse Hgn Inbnsepp. Iangvncnp NoSpn Un nv sNpI. Ghpw apIfnse Nov Xpdpp. Xmsg InIfnsemn Nph 10 hp Fncns. apIfnse ASpn Idp 9Dw. 9 se^vv nv sNbvXv _ hnSmsX 10s apIfntev aukv \opI. Nov aukv t]mbndns\mw Nenpw Click and Drag. "9' {UmKv sNbvXpsImWvSphv 10s apIfnshv _ kzX{ampI Drag & drop. "9' Xmgs 10\v apIfn hncnpw. Ifn Ahkm\nptm hoWvSpw IfntWm F UbtemKv t_mIvkv sXfnbpw. Bhiym\pkcWw adp]Sn \IpI. aukns Ne\coXn ]Tnm\p IuXpIam hgnbmWnXv.

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